Definitions selection criteria


Microorganisms and tested antibiotics or antibiotic groups

Microorganism Possible selections of antibiotics
Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin susceptible
Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant
Staphylococcus, coagulase-negative, not saprophyticus
Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin intermediate
Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin resistant
Penicillin
Oxacillin
Aminoglycoside
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
Tetracycline
Clindamycin
Macrolide
Vancomycin
Teicoplanin
Fluoroquinolone, newer
Tigecycline
Fluoroquinolone, older
Rifampicin
Fucidic acid
Mupirocin
Linezolid
Quinupristin-Dalfopristin
Enterococcus species (not identified to species level)
Enterococcus faecalis
Enterococcus faecium
Penicillin
Aminopenicillin
Gentamicin HLAR
Streptomycin HLAR
Tetracycline
Vancomycin
Fluoroquinolone, older
Fluoroquinolone, newer
Quinupristin-Dalfopristin
Linezolid
Fosfomycin
Tigecycline
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Streptococcus pneumoniae, penicillin susceptible
Streptococcus pneumoniae, penicillin nonsusceptible
Penicillin
Aminopenicillin
Ceftriaxone
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
Tetracycline
Clindamycin
Macrolide
Fluoroquinolone, newer
Tigecycline
Ketolide
Haemophilis influenzae Aminopenicillin
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid
Cephalosporin. 2nd generation
Cephalosporin, 3rd generation
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
Azithromycin
Clarithromycin
Fluoroquinolone, newer
Neisseria meningitidis Penicillin
Cephalosporin. 2nd generation
Cephalosporin, 3rd generation
Rifampicin
Fluoroquinolone, older
Neisseria gonorrhoeae Penicillin
Ceftriaxon
Tetracyclin
Fluoroquinolone, older
Citrobacter koseri
Citrobacter non koseri
Enterobacter spp.
Escherichia coli
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Klebsiella oxytoca
Morganella morganii
Proteus mirabilis
Proteus non mirabilis
Serratia spp.
Aminopenicillin
Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid
Piperacillin-tazobactam
Cephalosporin, 1st generation
Cephalosporin. 2nd generation
Cephalosporin, 3rd generation
Cefepime
Aztreonam
ESBL
Carbapenem
Aminoglycoside
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
Fluoroquinolone, older
Nitrofurantoine
Fosfomycin
Tigecycline
Campylobacter spp. Erythromycin
Fluoroquinolone, older
Macrolide
Salmonella spp
Shigella spp
Aminopenicillin
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
Fluoroquinolone, older
ESBL
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pieracillin-tazobactam
Ceftazidime
Cefepime
Carbapenem
Aminoglycoside
Ciprofloxacin
ESBL
Acinetobacter spp Piperacillin-tazobactam
Cephalosporin, 3rd generation
Cefepime
Carbapenem
Fluoroquinolone, older
Aminoglycoside
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
ESBL
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Ticarcillin-clavulanic acid
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
Levofloxacin
Minocyclin
ESBL

 

Antibiotic groups and antibiotics

Antibiotic group Antibiotic
Penicillin, Penicillinase-sensitive Penicillin
Aminopenicillin Ampicillin
Amoxicillin
b-Lactam-/b-Lactamase-Inhibitor Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid
Ticarcillin-clavulanic acid
Piperacillin-tazobactam
Cephalosporin, 1st generation Cefapirin
Cefadroxil
Cefalothin
Cefadrine
Cefazolin
Cephalosporin, 2nd generation Cefonicid
Cefprozil
Cefuroxime axetil (oral)
Cefuroxime sodium (parenteral)
Loracarbef
Cefamandole
Cephalosporin, 3rd generation Ceftazidime
Cefdinir
Cefixime
Cefpodoxime
Ceftriaxone
Cefoperazone
Ceftibuten
Cefotaxime
Ceftizoxime
Cephalosporin, 4th generation Cefepime
Carbapenem Imipenem
Meropenem
Aminoglycoside Amikacin
Gentamicin
Gentamicin, HLAR
Kanamycin
Kanamycin, HLAR
Neomycin
Netilmicin
Streptomycin
Streptomycin, HLAR
Tobramycin
Glycopeptide Teicoplanin
Vancomycin
Macrolide Azithromycin
Clarithromycin
Dirithromycin
Erythromycin
Josamycin
Roxithromycin
Fluoroquinolone, older Cinoxacin
Ciprofloxacin
Enoxacin
Fleroxacin
Nalidixic Acid
Norfloxacin
Ofloxacin
Fluoroquinolone, newer Gatifloxacin
Grepafloxacin
Lomefloxacin
Levofloxacin
Moxifloxacin
Sparfloxacin
Folate pathway inhibitor Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
Tetracyclin Doxycycline
Minocycline
Tetracycline
Tigecycline
Lincosamide Clindamycin
Nitrofurans Nitrofurantoin
Rifamycins Rifampicin

 

Age groups

Age group Age
< 15 less than 15 years old
>=15 15 years or older

 

In- and outpatients

Inpatients Samples from patients treated or hospitalized in acute care hospitals
Outpatients Samples of patients treated by general or specialized practitioners or long term facilities (chronic care facilities, rehabilitation clinic, nursing homes)

 

Regions

regions Switzerland

 

Region Canton Number of inhabitants
Switzerland Central-East Luzern 394'604
Nidwalden 42'080
Obwalden 36'834
Schwyz 152'759
Uri 36'008
Zug 120'089
Total  782'374
Switzerland Central-West Bern 1'009'418
Freiburg 303'377
Solothurn 263'719
Wallis 331'763
Total  1'908'277
Switzerland East Appenzell   Ausserrhoden 54'064
Appenzell Innerrhoden 15'854
Glarus 39'794
Graubünden 195'886
Sankt Gallen 495'824
Total  801'422
Switzerland Genève area Genf 477'385
Total  477'385
Switzerland Nord-East Schaffhausen 79'417
Thurgau 263'733
Zürich 1'446'354
Total  1'789'504
Switzerland North-West Aargau 645'277
Basel Land 281'301
Basel Stadt 190'580
Jura 72'410
Total  1'189'568
Switzerland South Tessin 350'363
Total  350'363
Switzerland West Neuenburg 177'327
Waadt 761'446
Total  938'773

Data from Bundesamt für Statistik, 2015

 

 

Anatomic localization of samples

For a few microorganisms analysis is possible depending on the anatomic localization of the samples:
Microorganism Anatomic localization
Escherichia coli all
Urogenital
Staphylococcus aureus all
Blood
Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant all
Blood
Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin susceptible all
Blood
 

Notes

Results: % of tested isolates, n is number of tested isolates.

Definition of susceptibility, intermediate resistance and resistance: Based on interpretative breakpoints defined by CLSI or EUCAST. In 2011 and 2012 the methods used may differ between the individual laboratories.

Exception: Interpretative breakpoints for ceftriaxone are defined for cerebrospinal fluid.

Definition Enterococcus species: Enterococcus species without identification to species level. Enterococci with vancomycin resistance are always identified to species levels and are therefore not represented in this group.

Antibiotic groups are set intermediate resp resistant, if at least one out of the tested antibiotics is intermediate resp. resistant.

Definition aminopenicillin: Amoxicillin, ampicillin

Definition cephalosporin, 1st generation: Cefapirin, cefadroxil, cefalothin, cefradine, cefazolin

Definition cephalosporin, 2nd generation: Cefonicid, cefprozil, cefuroxime axetil (oral), cefuroxime sodium (parenteral), loracarbef, cefamandole

Definition cephalosporin, 3rd generation: Ceftazidime, cefdinir, cefixime, cefpodoxime, ceftriaxone, cefoperazone, ceftibuten, cefotaxime, ceftizoxime

ESBL (Expanded beta-lactamasis activity): Susceptible means ESBL-activity no; resistant means ESBL-activity yes. Intermediate not existing. Interpretation ESBL-activity yes: Resistant for all penicillins, cephalosporins and aztreonam.

Definition carbapenem: Imipenem, meropenem

Definition aminoglycoside: Amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, netilmicin, streptomycin, tobramycin.

HLAR: High level aminoglycoside resistance

Definition macrolide: Azithromycin, clarithromycin, dirithromycin, erythromycin, josamycin, roxithromycin.

Definition fluoroquinolones, older: Cinoxacin, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, fleroxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, ofloxacin.

Fluoroquinolone, older: Indicated only for antimicrobial prophylaxis after exposition.

Definition fluoroquinolone, newer: Gatifloxacin, grepafloxacin, levofloxacin, lemofloxacin, moxifloxacin, sparfloxacin.

Nitrofurantoin: Only for urinary tract infections.

Mupirocin: Only for topical use.